散文中年人的寂寞英译赏析

发布时间:2019-08-07 16:01:00 编辑:培训基地 手机版

  一到中年,就有许多不愉快的现象,眼睛昏花了,记忆力减退了,头发开始秃脱而且变白了,意兴,体力,什么都不如年青的时候,常不禁会感觉到难以名言的寂寞的情味。下面是小编分享的英译散文《中年人的寂寞》赏析,欢迎阅读!

  《中年人的寂寞》

  Mid-life Loneliness

  夏丐尊

  Xia Mianzun

  我已是一个中年的人。一到中年,就有许多不愉快的现象,眼睛昏花了,记忆力减退了,头发开始秃脱而且变白了,意兴,体力,什么都不如年青的时候,常不禁会感觉到难以名言的寂寞的情味。尤其觉得难堪的是知友的逐渐减少和疏远,缺乏交际上的温暖的慰藉。

  I am already a middle-aged man. At middle age, I feel sad to find my eyesight and memory failing, my hair thinning and graying, and myself no longer mentally and physically as fit as when I was young. I often suffer from a nameless loneliness. The most intolerable of all is the lack of friendly warmth and comfort due to the gradual passing away and estrangement of more and more old pals.

  要点:

  1,“一到中年”译为At middle age,翻译中介词和动词之间的互动也是值得注意的,如“美国在追求世界霸权时,经常侵犯他国人权”=In pursuit of world hegemony, the U.S. has frequently violated the human rights of other countries.

  2,fail是个多义词,在不同情境下有着不同含义,最常见的就是“失败”其他翻译中的常见意思还有“未做到(fail to do)””辜负”此处意为“衰退”

  3,“头发秃脱”意为“头发变少”此处用的thin十分形象

  4,“意兴,体力,什么都不如年青的时候”=“身体和和精神头都不如年轻的时候好”转换说法~

  5,nameless=indescribable,但nameless通常来指不好的事情,文学翻译中还常见一个needless,常用在”needless to say”(不消说)

  6,逐渐减少=the gradual passing away,这里的减少是“死去”之意

  不消说,相识的人数是随了年龄增加的,一个人年龄越大,走过的地方当过的职务越多,相识的人理该越增加了。可是相识的人并不就是朋友。我们和许多人相识,或是因为事务关系,或是因了偶然的机缘——如在别人请客的时候同席吃过饭之类。见面时点头或握手,有事时走访或通信,口头上彼此也称为“朋友”,笔头上有时或称“仁兄”,诸如此类,其实只是一种社交上的客套,和“顿首”“百拜”同是仪式的虚伪。这种交际可以说是社交,和真正的友谊相差似乎很远。

  Needless to say, the number of acquaintances increases with one's age. The older one gets, the more widely traveled one is and the more work experience one has, the more acquaintances one is supposed to have. But not all acquaintances are friends. We come to know many people either in the way of business or by mere chance –say, having been at the same table at a dinner party. We may be on nodding or hand-shaking terms, call each other "friend", sometimes write to each other with the salutation of "Dear So-and-So", etc., etc. All these are, in fact, nothing but civilities of social life, as hypocritical as the polite formula dunshou (kowtow) or baibai (a hundred greetings) used after the signature in old-fashioned Chinese letter-writing. We may call them social intercourse, but they seem to have very little in common with genuine friendship.

  要点:

  1,“一个人年龄越大,走过的地方当过的职务越多,相识的人理该越增加了”,这是一个比较句,基本结构是“the more…the more…”,如:“愈是颜色艳丽的花愈缺少芬芳。”译为The showier the flowers are, the less sweetness they have.

  2,“我们和许多人相识,或是因为事务关系,或是因了偶然的机缘…”译为“We come to know many people either in the way of business or by mere chance –say, having been at the same table at a dinner party. ”其中in the way of,意为“为了,关于,以…的方法”表示此处的“因了”

  3,We may be on nodding or hand-shaking terms,on terms,中的“be on…terms with”意为“与…是什么关系”,term与terms 在意思上有所区别前者可做“术语,时期,时限”,后者意为“条款,条件,关系”注意区分~

  4,“笔头上称”= write to each other with the salutation of "Dear So-and-So",还有一种说法表示“笔头上的”即be written~如Many things have been written and said of the natural beauty and charms of Los Angeles.(洛杉矶的自然之美以及吸引力使它获得了许多来自笔头以及口头上的褒奖。)written单独也可表示“笔头上,口头上,书面上的”,如“written homework”书面作业

  5,“和‘顿首’‘百拜’同是仪式的虚伪”,“顿首”,“百拜”用释义译法译为dunshou (kowtow) or baibai (a hundred greetings) used after the signature in old-fashioned Chinese letter-writing.这种译法常出现于文学翻译中。

  6,相去甚远=have little in common with, little 表示“甚少”的用法又粗现啦~

  真正的朋友,恐怕要算“总角之交”或“竹马之交”了。在小学和中学的时代容易结成真实的友谊,那时彼此尚不感到生活的压迫,入世未深,打算计较的念头也少,朋友结成全由于志趣相近或性情适合,差不多可以说是“无所为”的,性质比较地纯粹。

  Real friendship between two persons originates perhaps from the time of life when they were children playing innocently together. Real friendship is easily formed in primary or middle school days when, being socially inexperienced and free from the burden of life, you give little thought to personal gains or losses, and make friends entirely as a result of similar tastes and interests or congenial disposition. It is sort of "friendship for friendship's sake" and is relatively pure in nature.

  要点:

  1,“总角之交”或“竹马之交”采用意译法处理。译为Real friendship between two persons originates perhaps from the time of life when they were children playing innocently together.

  2,涉世未深=being socially inexperienced and free from the burden of life

  3,打算计较的念头也少=“不计较个人得失”=give little thought to personal gains and losses,注意这里的Little又出现了哦,表示“少”。

  4,“朋友结成全由于志趣相近或性情适合”,这里的“由于”译为了as a result of,这种替换because of 的用法也值得积累~

  5,“差不多可以说是‘无所为’的”译为It is sort of "friendship for friendship's sake"中对于“无所为”的理解应是“无条件的,无目的的”,故采用了句式for…one’s sake(为了…),意为“为了友谊而友谊”,也就是无条件无目的的友谊~在冰心的《话说短文》中有句“为了写作而写作”译为“if one writes simply for the sake of writing”也显示了这个意思。

  二十岁以后结成的友谊,大概已不免搀有各种各样的颜色分子在内;至于三十岁四十岁以后的朋友中间,颜色分子愈多,友谊的真实成分也就不免因而愈少了。

  Friendship among people in their 20's, however, is more or less colored by personal motives. And friendship among those aged over 30 becomes correspondingly still less pure as it gets even more colored.

  1,“大概已不免搀有各种各样的颜色分子在内”=“或多或少都加入了个人动机”译为is more or less colored by personal motives,注意colour在此的动词用法,没想到吧~~这就是文学用词的灵活性

  2,aged over做后置定语表示“…岁以上的”,如: There are 21 million people aged over 50 in Britain.英国年过五十的人有两千一百万。

  3,“颜色分子愈多,友谊的真实成分也就不免因而愈少了”这里的“愈…愈…”并没有译为the more ,the more结构,体现了文学翻译句式的灵活性,值得我们借鉴!

  这并不一定是“人心不古”,实可以说是人生的悲剧。人到了成年以后,彼此都有生活的重担须负,入世既不许你不打算,结果彼此都“钩心斗角”,像七巧板似地只选定了某一方面和对方去接合。这样的接合当然是很不坚固的,尤其是现代这样什么都到了尖锐化的时代。

  Though this is not necessarily due to "degeneration of public morality", I do have good reasons to call it the tragedy of life. People at middle age, with the heavy burden of life and much experience in the ways of the world, have more scruples about this and that, and cannot choose but become more calculating in social dealings till they start scheming against each other. They always keep a wary eye, as it were, on each other in their association. Such association is of course fragile, especially in this modern age of prevailing sharp conflicts.

  要点:

  1,“人心不古”指今人的心地失淳朴而流于诈伪,没有古人厚道。慨叹社会风气变坏。知道这个意思就好翻了,译为degeneration of public morality(社会道德的沦丧)

  2,cannot choose but do=不得不,“入世既不许你不打算”(双重否定表肯定)意即“使你不得不变得精于计算”~一般否定不好译的时候,我们可以采取正面译法

  3,“结果彼此都‘钩心斗角’”译为till they start scheming(欺骗) against each other。注意till的特殊用法,这里指“结果”=so that, finally, and at last.

  4, “像七巧板似地只选定了某一方面和对方去接合”这句话比较难理解(文学大家们都太含蓄(⊙v⊙),要深挖深挖其本质含义~那就是!(前方高能~~

  ---“人们互相提防,互存戒心地交往”,译为They always keep a wary(小心的,谨慎的) eye, as it were, on each other in their association.其中as it were是插入语,意为“可以说”,起到连接上下文的作用。

  在我自己的交游中,最值得系念的老是一些少年时代以来的朋友。这些朋友本来数目就不多,有些住在远地,连相会的机会也不可多得。他们有的年龄大过了我,有的小我几岁,都是中年以上的人了,平日各人所走的方向不同。思想趣味境遇也都不免互异,大家晤谈起来,也常会遇到说不出的隔膜的情形。

  Of all my friends, those I have known since childhood are most worthy of remembrance. They are few in number. Some of them live far away and we seldom have an opportunity to see each other. Some of them are older than I am, and some a few years younger. But all of us are in late mid-life. Since we have each followed a different course in life, our ways of thinking, interests and circumstances are bound to differ, and often we lack mutual understanding somehow or other in our conversation.

  要点:

  1, of君经常粗现在翻译中表示“其中”哦~~比如“西藏各地都有著名的古代艺术景点,其中最著名的景点有布达拉宫…”译为Of famous ancient art sites all around Tibet, the most well-known sites are the Potala Palace…

  2, “数目不多”=few in number,新表述!

  3, “各人所走的方向不同”意为“走上了不同的道路”,“道路”这个词我们在《艰难地国运与雄健的国民》中提到多词哦,是course,通常表“道路,进程”之意

  4, “somehow or other”意为“不知怎么地,莫名其妙地”此处代表“说不出的”,之前我们还见到过nameless, indescribable都表示这个意思

  5, “隔膜”用了意译法,译为“缺少共识”

  如大家话旧,旧事是彼此共喻的,而且大半都是少年时代的事,“旧游如梦”,把梦也似的过去的少年时代重提,因谈话的进行,同时会联想起许多当时的事情,许多当时的人的面影,这时好像自己仍回归到少年时代去了。我常在这种时候感到一种快乐,同时也感到一种伤感,那情形好比老妇人突然在抽屉里或箱子里发见了她盛年时的影片。

  Nevertheless, when we talk over old times, we will always agree on things in the past--mostly about things in our childhood days. While we retell the dream-like childhood days in the course of our conversation, numerous scenes and persons of bygone days will unfold again before our eyes, and we will feel like reliving the old days. Often at this moment, I'll feel at once happy and sad--like an old lady suddenly fishing out from her drawer or chest a photo of her taken in the bloom of her youth.

  要点:

  1,“如大家话旧,旧事是彼此共喻的,而且大半都是少年时代的事,”这个句子中第一分句和后两个分句的主语不一致,对于这种情况,翻译中常采用转换主语的方法,稍作分析就可以看出“话旧”是“我们”发出的动作,“旧事”也是“我们”的事,因此取“我们”做主语可以把这几个句子串起来。

  2,“旧游如梦”的意思即“梦也似的过去的少年时代”因此,都译作the dream-like childhood days

  3,“这时好像自己仍回归到少年时代去了”译为and we will feel like reliving the old days,注意relive~~意为“再次体验,重温(尤指在想象中)”,用在这里真是不能再贴切~

  逢到和旧友谈话,就不知不觉地把话题转到旧事上去,这是我的习惯。我在这上面无意识地会感到一种温暖的慰藉。可是这些旧友一年比一年减少了,本来只是屈指可数的几个,少去一个是无法弥补的。我每当听到一个旧友死去的消息,总要惆怅多时。

  When chatting away with my old friends, I am in the habit of unwittingly channeling the topic of conversation toward things of former days. From that I unknowingly derive some sort of warm solace. But old friends are dwindling away year by year. They are originally few in number, so the disappearance of any of them is an irreparable loss to me. The news of any old pal's death will invariably make me sad in my heart for a long, long time.

  要点:

  1,“不知不觉地”=in the habit of unwittingly doing sth

  2,channel 作动词时有“把…导向,引导”的意思,这个意思在翻译中比较常见,如政府工作报告中“大力…”,就可以用“channel great efforts to do…”来表达

  3,此段表“无意识地”的有两个词“unwittingly”“unknowingly”,另外unconsciously, insensibly,都是他们的小伙伴~

  4,在表达“使某人感到…”时,本段又出现了一个新表达即derive,之前对于此类表述我们有过一个总结(详见《背影》),散文主要就是抒发感情的,所以此类表述相对较多,童鞋们要根据语境多做总结~

  5,“我每当听到一个旧友死去的消息”译为The news of,这种译法大家应该很熟悉了,在《背影》中多次出现,比如“想到”=the thought of~

  学校教育给我们的好处不但只是灌输知识,最大的好处恐怕还在给与我们求友的机会上。这好处我到了离学校以后才知道,这几年来更确切地体会到,深悔当时毫不自觉,马马虎虎地就过去了。近来每日早晚在路上见到两两三三的携着书包,携了手或挽了肩膀走着的青年学生,我总艳羡他们有朋友之乐,暗暗地要在心中替他们祝福。

  The imparting of knowledge is not the sole advantage of school education. Its greatest advantage is perhaps the opportunity it affords us for making friends. It was not until I had already left school that I began to realize this advantage. And in recent years I have come to understand it even more deeply. I much regret having carelessly frittered away my school days without making many friends. Recently, every morning or evening, whenever I see school kids with satchels walking in twos and threes, hand in hand or shoulder to shoulder, I always envy them for enjoying happy friendship, and inwardly offer them my best wishes.

  要点:

  1,“灌输知识”译为The imparting of knowledge,这种将动词译为“the +抽象名词+of”的手法我们之前也见过很多,要引起重视

  2,“这好处我到了离学校以后才知道”中运用not until句式是表示“才”字句常用的一种方法

  3,fritter away意为“挥霍,浪费”,很形象啊~表示“虚度”的小伙伴还有loaf/idle/fool/dawdle/fiddle away one’s time,恩,麻麻再也不用担心没得用了~

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